Urea Breath Test (UBT) is one of the most important non-invasive methods to detect Helicobacter pylori infection. The test utilizes the hydrolysis of oral urea by urease produced in large quantities by Helicobacter pylori. Urea is hydrolyzed into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which diffuses into the blood and is excreted by the lungs. Isotope-labeled CO2 can be detected in the breath using a variety of methods.
13c ubt kit is becoming more and more popular because this non-radioactive isotope is harmless and can be used safely in children and women of childbearing age.
Houston consensus on h.pylori infection diagnosis statement is the most widely used UBT is 13C-UBT with citric acid, which can acidify the stomach and enhance urease activity. Citric acid produces a higher positive signal by inhibiting the urease activity of other urease-containing organisms in the stomach.
The Houston consensus in USA states that those people need to be tested for Helicobacter pylori infection:
statement 1：We recommend that all patients with active H pylori infection be treated
statement 2：All patients with current or past gastric or duodenal ulcers should be tested for H pylori infection
statement 3：We recommend that all patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia be tested for H pylori infec-tion
statement 4: We recommend routine testing for H pylori infection in patients with reflux symptoms only if they are at high risk for H pylori-related disease
Statement 5: We recommend that patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma be tested for H pylori infection
Statement 6: We recommend that individuals with family history of gastric cancer be tested for H pylori infection
Statement 7: We recommend that patients who are first-generation immigrants from high prevalence areas be tested for H pylori infection
Statement 8: We suggest that patients of Latino and African American racial or ethnic groups may be considered for H pylori testing due to their high risk of infection