Urea breath test: The patient ingests a test meal that contains urea labeled with carbon-13 (13 C), which is a nonradioactive isotope. H pylori urease activity produces labeled13 C dioxide that can be detected in exhaled air. A positive result confirms urease activity and H pylori infection. This test is very specific and sensitive in patients older than 6 years. Its most useful application is to verify H pylori eradication after treatment. Experience in children 5 years or younger, particularly in infants, is relatively limited and needs further validation.
The 13C‐UBT performance meta‐analyses showed :
● good accuracy in all ages combined (sensitivity 95.9%, specificity 95.7%, LR+ 17.4, LR− 0.06, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 424.9)
● high accuracy in children >6 years (sensitivity 96.6%, specificity 97.7%, LR+ 42.6, LR− 0.04, DOR 1042.7)